Best protection against mosquitoes may be provided by regular use of products with a repellent activity, which prevent biting and feeding and thus transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs). 

Further control measures can be aimed at the larvae or the adults of mosquitoes, here in form of insecticidals or by mechanical measures. 

Larval Control 

Elimination or modification of larval habitats are practiced on different scales. Areas are drained or filled in to eradicate breeding sites. Marshy areas are dug out to create impoundments containing uninterrupted standing water, which is unsuitable as a larval breeding habitat for many species. Nowadays the impact on the ecosystem limits the practicability of these control measures. Other devices are the use of covers or screens to prevent egg deposition in domestic water containers or cisterns. 

Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is used as a microbial insecticide, with its spores containing a crystalline endotoxin, which induces the lysis of midgut cells of the larvae. 

Other biological control in form of larvivorous fish (e.g. Gambusia sp.) and other agents, has not proved to be very effective in reducing biting densities of mosquitoes or disease transmission. 

In the case of mosquitoes as pests and disease vectors for man and companion animals, in general larval control is impractical and hardly effective. 

Adult Control 

Control of adult mosquitoes can be performed by the use of mechanical preventives (e.g. protective clothing, mosquito screening on windows and doors, bed nets), repellents or insecticides, respectively combinations thereof (e.g. bed nets impregnated with pyrethroid insecticides). 

Insect repellents on man and domestic animals provide a degree of protection, depending on the active ingredient and application form used. Ultra-low-volume (ULV) spraying can often give rapid, but temporary relief in restricted areas. Spraying of residual insecticides in the area of houses has been practised as successful control, especially against endophilic mosquitoes, with a relatively long period of effectivity. It has been used worldwide in anti-malaria campaigns. 

In veterinary medicine, insecticides with repellent efficacy have been used for decades, especially to protect life stock against insects. In companion animals, topical so called spot-on formulations as well as collars can provide repellent efficacy and prevent companion animals from mosquito bites. 




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