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Sand flies are biting insects that share some similarities with mosquitoes, being classified in the suborder Nematocera. They are widely spread in regions with warm temperate to subtropical and tropical climates.
The veterinary and medical importance of sand flies results from their ability to transmit viral, bacterial and protozoal diseases which can be a major health issue. Of the sand fly-transmitted diseases, leishmaniosis is one of the most important vector-borne diseases worldwide causing disease in dog but also of major zoonotic importance in humans.